Méthode d’évaluation de l’impact des composants de construction sur la performance globale (énergétique & environnementale, économique et sociale) d’un bâtiment tout au long de son cycle de vie

Abstract : Current expectations in terms of energy, environmental, economic and social performance, are increasingly higher, making more complex the act of building and complicating decision-making in the design phase. Therefore, tomorrow's challenge includes the support of construction stakeholders in the choice of the least risky and most appropriate construction components for a given construction project. This PhD was born of the desire to respond to this challenge. The objective being to develop a method for assessing the impact of the integration of a construction component on the overall performance (energy, environmental, economic and social) of a building throughout its life cycle. The appropriation of the risk culture, its assessment (identification, analysis and evaluation), and its management in the field of construction is a new phenomenon, still mainly in the state of research. However, other fields such as nuclear, aeronautics or finance have already acquired knowledge. Tools, methods and techniques were developed and highlighted good practices and precautions to be followed. This robust basis was used to develop our method and in particular, the classical method of Cooke (1991) was used to weigh the expert judgments in order to ensure a better representativeness of reality. The proposed method is composed of three steps. The first is a preliminary step that allows to define the objectives of performance to be achieved for an efficient building by building-up a family of performance indicators. It also allows to choose between the two next steps. Either the construction component is largely distributed and the main process is implemented, or it is innovative component and the secondary process is implemented. In fine the method enables : 1) to identify the 'hazard/risk' pairs associated with the component studied (largely distributed or innovative component) ; 2) to highlight, by weighting the performance indicators representing the overall performance to be achieved for a particular building : a) the most sensitive indicators regarding this component (largely distributed component) ; b) the impact of the integration of this component through the 'hazard/risk' pairs identified throughout the life cycle of the building at the component scale and at the building scale (largely distributed component). It was tested on two construction components, one largely distributed, the other innovative, which has highlighted the method advantages, limits, prospects and improvements from a theoretical point of view. But also to identify good practices, risks and learning associated with its implementation. Its strength lies in its large-scale deployment. The more it will be implemented on a large number of construction components of the same family, the more it will bring an interest in design assistance by comparing these components to choose the most appropriate and least risky for a given construction project.
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Génie civil. Université de La Rochelle, 2017. Français. 〈NNT : 2017LAROS014〉
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Sara Hadji Rezai. Méthode d’évaluation de l’impact des composants de construction sur la performance globale (énergétique & environnementale, économique et sociale) d’un bâtiment tout au long de son cycle de vie. Génie civil. Université de La Rochelle, 2017. Français. 〈NNT : 2017LAROS014〉. 〈tel-01724635〉

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